| Department of Chemistry

B.Sc. (Research) in Chemistry

Degree Requirement

152

Total Credits

101

Core Credits

9

Major Electives

42

CCC + UWE credits

Core & Elective Courses

Core Courses

The chemistry program at SNU provides both a broad background in chemical principles and an in-depth study of chemistry or chemistry-related areas that build on this background.

The chemistry curriculum is divided into three parts: (1) the introductory chemistry experience, (2) foundation course work that provides breadth, and (3) rigorous in-depth course work that builds on the foundation.

Because chemistry is an experimental science, substantial laboratory work is an integral part of this experience. The introductory or general chemistry experience plays a vital role in educating all students. The introductory courses provide a common background for students with a wide range of high school experiences, and allow a period for consolidation of chemical concepts, as well as mathematical and laboratory skills. For students pursuing a chemistry major, the introductory chemistry courses provide preparation for the foundation course work, ensuring that students know basic chemical concepts such as stoichiometry, states of matter, atomic structure, molecular structure and bonding, thermodynamics, equilibria, and kinetics.

A Computing / Programming course is alsocincluded - students have flexibility in choosing this course from any of the departments that offer one.

Students also need to be competent in basic laboratory skills such as safe practices, keeping a notebook, use of electronic balances and volumetric glassware, preparation of solutions, chemical measurements using pH. Foundation courses provide breadth and lay the groundwork for the in-depth course work in each of the five major areas of chemistry: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry.

The chemistry laboratory experience at SNU includes synthesis of molecules; measurement of chemical properties, structures, and phenomena. Students get hands-on experience with modern instrumentation on a variety of analytical instruments, including spectrometers, and are expected to understand the operation and theory of modern instruments and use them to solve chemical problems as part of their laboratory experience.

Course code
Title
Credit
BIO201
Cell Biology and Genetics
3

Cell as a basic unit of living systems, broad classification of cell types: bacteria, eukaryotic microbes, plant and animal cells; cell, tissue, organ and organisms, Cell organelles: Ultrastructure of cell membrane and function, Chromosomes: Structural organisation of chromosomes, nucleosome organization, euchromatin and heterochromatin. Cell division and cell cycle, Cell–cell interaction, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, Cell differentiation.

 History, scope and significance of Genetics. Mendelian laws of inheritance. Lethality and interaction of genes. Linkage and crossing over. Mapping of genes. Basic microbial genetics, Genetic mapping. Classical and modern concept of gene, Mutations, Chromosomal aberrations. Genetic disorders in humans. Sex determination in plants and animals. Non disjunction as a proof of chromosomal theory of inheritance. Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited inheritance. Extra chromosomal inheritance; cytoplasmic inheritance, Mitochondrial and Chloroplast inheritance. Principles of Population genetics; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law, Gene and genotype frequencies.

Recommended Books:

  • An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Roff, M., Robert, K.,  Walter, P., Roberts, K., Pub: Garland Publishing Company.
  • Cell and Molecular Biology, Sheelar, P., Bianchi, D. E., Pub: John Wiley.
  • Molecular Cell Biology, Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaura, P.,   Baltimore, D., Danell, J., pub; W.H. Preeman and Company.
  • Principles of Genetics, Gardner, E. J., Pub; John Wiley & Sons Inc.
CHY111
Chemical Principles
5

This course will focus on introductory chemical principles, including periodicity, chemical bonding, molecular structure, equilibrium and the relationship between structure and properties. Students will explore stoichiometric relationships in solution and gas systems which are the basis for quantifying the results of chemical reactions. Understanding chemical reactivity leads directly into discussion of equilibrium and thermodynamics, two of the most important ideas in chemistry. Equilibrium, especially acid/base applications, explores the extent of reactions while thermodynamics helps us understand if a reaction will happen. The aim of the laboratory will be to develop your experimental skills, especially your ability to perform meaningful experiments, analyze data, and interpret observations. This is a required course for Chemistry majors, but also satisfies UWE requirements for non-majors.

COURSE CONTENT:

  1. Atomic structure, Periodic table, VSEPR, Molecular Orbital theory, and biochemistry:
    1. Introduction: why chemistry in engineering? Concept of atom, molecules, Rutherford’s atomic model, Bohr’s model of an atom, wave model, classical and quantum mechanics, wave particle duality of electrons, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Quantum-Mechanical Model of Atom, Double Slit Experiment for Electrons, The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen atoms, de Broglie wavelength, Periodic Table.
    2. Schrodinger equation (origin of quantization), Concept of Atomic Orbitals, representation of electrons move in three-dimensional space, wave function (Y), Radial and angular part of wave function, radial and angular nodes, Shape of orbitals, the principal (n), angular (l), and magnetic (m) quantum numbers, Pauli exclusion principle.
    3. Orbital Angular Momentum (l), Spin Angular Momentum (s), spin-orbit coupling, HUND’s Rule, The aufbau principle, Penetration, Shielding Effect, Effective Nuclear Charge, Slater’s rule.
    4. Periodic properties, Ionization Energies of Elements, Electron affinities of elements, Periodic Variation of Physical Properties such as metallic character of the elements, melting point of an atom, ionic and covalent nature of a molecule, reactivity of hydrides, oxides and halides of the elements.
    5. Lewis structures, Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), Valence-Bond theory (VB), Orbital Overlap, Hybridization, Molecular Orbital Theory (MO) of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules, bonding and anti-bonding orbitals.
    6. Biochemistry: Importance of metals in biological systems, Fe in biological systems, Hemoglobin, Iron Storage protein - Ferritin]

2. Introduction to various analytical techniques:

UV-Visible Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, X-Ray crystallography

Spectroscopy: Regions of Electromagnetic Radiation, Infra-Red (IR) Spectroscopy or Vibrational Spectroscopy of Harmonic oscillators, degree of freedom, Stretching and Bending, Infrared Spectra of different functional groups such as OH, NH2, CO2H etc., UV-Vis Spectroscopy of organic molecules, Electronic Transitions, Beer-Lambert Law, Chromophores, principles of NMR spectroscopy, 1H and 13C-NMR, chemical shift, integration, multiplicity,

X-ray crystallography: X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s Law, Crystal systems and Bravais Lattices

  1. The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium, kinetics and intermolecular forces:
  • Heat & Work; State Functions
  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Probability and Entropy
  • Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability
  • Determination of rate, order and rate laws
  • Free Energy, Chemical Potential, Electronegativity
  • Phase Rule/Equilibrium
  • Activation Energy; Arrhenius equation
  • Catalysis: types; kinetics and mechanisms
  • Electrochemistry
  • Inter-molecular forces

 4. Introduction to organic chemistry, functional group and physical properties of organic compounds, substitution and elimination reaction, name reactions and stereochemistry

Texts & References:

  1. Chemical Principles - Richard E. Dickerson, Harry B. Gray, Jr. Gilbert P. Haight
  2. Valence - Charles A. Coulson [ELBS /Oxford Univ. Press]
  3. Valence Theory - J. N. Murrell, S. F. A. Kettle, J. M. Tedder [ELBS/Wiley]
  4. Physical Chemistry - P. W. Atkins [3rd Ed. ELBS]
  5. Physical Chemistry - Gilbert W. Castellan [Addison Wesley, 1983]
  6. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach -Donald A. McQuarrie, J.D . Simon
  7. Inorganic Chemistry:  Duward Shriver and Peter Atkins.
  8. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity by James E. Huheey,
  9. Ellen A. Keiter and Richard L. Keiter.
  10. Inorganic Chemistry: Catherine Housecroft, Alan G. Sharpe.
  11. Atkins' Physical Chemistry, Peter W. Atkins, Julio de Paula.
  12. Strategic Applications of Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Author: Kurti Laszlo et.al
  13. Classics in Stereoselective Synthesis, Author: Carreira Erick M & Kvaerno Lisbet
  14. Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions Student Edition, Author: Fleming Ian
  15. Logic of Chemical Synthesis, Author: Corey E. J. & Xue-Min Cheng
  16. Art of Writing Reasonable Organic Reaction Mechanisms /2nd Edn., Author: Grossman Robert B.
  17. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach/ 2nd Edn., Author: Warrer Stuart & Wyatt Paul

Other reading materials will be assigned as and when required.

Prerequisite: None.

CHY122
Basic Organic Chemistry I
4
  1. Intermolecular forces of attraction: van der Waals forces, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding
  2. Homolytic and heterolytic bond fission.
  3. Hybridization- Bonding
  4. Electron displacements: Inductive, electromeric, resonance, hyperconjugation effect
  5. Reaction intermediate- their shape and stability
    • a. carbocations,
    • b. carbanions,
    • c. free radicals,
    • d. carbenes,
    • e. benzynes
  6. Acidity and basicity of organic molecules: Alkanes/Alkenes, Alcohols/Phenols/Carboxylic acids, Amines pKa, pKb.
  7. Electrophiles and nucleophiles. Nucleophilicity and Basicity
  8. Aromaticity and Tautomerism
  9. Molecular chirality and Isomerism
    • a. Cycloalkanes (C3 to C8): Relative stability, Baeyer strain theory and Sachse Mohr theory.
    • b. Conformations and Conformational analysis: Ethane, n-butane, ethane derivatives, cyclohexane, monosubstituted and disubstituted cyclohexanes and their relative stabilities.
  10. Stereochemistry (Structural- and Stereo-isomerism)
    • Molecular representations: Newman, Sawhorse, Wedge & Dash, Fischer projections and their inter conversions.
  11. Geometrical isomerism in unsaturated and cyclic systems: cis–trans and, syn-anti isomerism, E/Z notations. Geometrical isomerism in dienes- Isolated and conjugated systems, determination of configurations.
  12. Chirality and optical isomerism: Configurational isomers. Molecules with one or two chiral centres- constitutionally symmetrical and unsymmetrical molecules; Enantiomers and diastereomers. Optical activity, disymmetry, meso compounds, racemic modifications and methods of their resolution; stereochemical nomenclature: erythro/threo, D/L and R/S nomenclature in acyclic systems. Measurement of optical activity: specific rotation.

Books:

    1. Morrison, Robert Thornton & Boyd, Robert Neilson Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Seventh Edition, 2005.
    2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Sixth Edition, 2003.
    3. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 2: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural Products), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education). Fifth Edition, 1975.
    4. Graham Solomons, T.W., Craig B. Fryhle Organic Chemistry, Ninth edition
    5. Eliel, E. L. & Wilen, S. H. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds; First Edition, Wiley: London, 1994.
    6. Clayden, Greeves Warren and Wothers, Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
    7. Oxford Chemistry Primers, Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press.

    Prerequisite: Chemical Principles (CHY111).

    CHY142
    Main Group Chemistry
    3

    The s–block elements and the noble gases:

    1. The s–block elements of Gr – I, Gr – II, their general electronic configuration, trends in I. P., ionic radii; reaction with H, O, N, C, and hydrolytic behaviour of the products.
    2. General metallurgical consideration of these elements.
    3. Differences of Li and Be from other members of their groups (the diagonal relationship).
    4. Isotopes of H, industrial preparation of deuterium, its properties, reactions and uses; ortho–para – hydrogen.
    5. Separation and uses of the noble gases; compounds of Kr and Xe – preparation, properties, structures.

    The p–block elements:

    1. Gr. III. (a) The general group properties * (b) Boron Chemistry – preparation, properties of boranes; Structure and bonding of diborane, Boranine Boron nitrides; electron deficient nature of hydrides, halides and their polymerisation.
    2. Gr. IV (a) The general group properties * (b) Aspects of C and Si chemistry the difference of C and P from the rest of the group elements. Preparation, properties, u ses of the fluoroecarbons, the silanes and the silicones.
    3. Gr. IV (a) The general group properties * (b) N and P – Chemistry: The presence of lone pair and basicity of trivalent compounds; trends in bond angles of hydrides, halides, preparation, properties, structures and bonding of hydrazine, hydroxylamine, hydrazoic acids, the oxides and oxyacids of N, P; d – orbital participation in P–compounds.
    4. Gr. VI (a) The general group properties * (b) S–Chemistry – Preparation, properties, structures and bonding of the oxides, oxyacids (including the thionous, thionic and per–acids), halides, oxy–halides and poly sulphides; d–orbital participation in S–Compounds.
    5. Gr. VII (a) The general group properties * (b) The halogen hydrides, their acidity; Preparation, properties, structures and bonding of the oxides and oxy acids; the inter halogen compounds including polyhalides, the pseudohalides – including their preparation, properties, structures. The cationic compounds of iodine.

    * Note : General group properties : – For each group this includes discussion, on a comparative basis, of major physical and chemical properties, e.g. – i) Physical properties – the electronic configuration; ionisation potential / electron affinity; m.p. – b.p. ; ionic/covalent radii etc. ii) Chemical properties – Various oxidation states and their relative stability (redox behaviour in solution, wherever applicable), higher stability of the higher oxidation states for the heavier members; gradual changes of the ionic/covalent character of the compounds from lighter to heavier members; the relative acidity, amphoteric, basic characteristics of the oxides and formation of oxocations (wherever applicable); examples of compounds in all the oxidation states, in particular, the unusual (rare) oxidation states being stabilised through coordination; hydrides, halides (including the halo complexes) and their hydrolytic behaviour; dimerization and/or polymerization through halogen bridges (wherever applicable) etc. iii) Common natural sources of the elements.

    Acid-Base / Ionic Equilibrium / Non-aqueous solvents, reduction.

    BOOKS:

    1. Inorganic Chemistry:  Duward Shriver and Peter Atkins.
    2. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity by James E. Huheey, Ellen A. Keiter and Richard L. Keiter.
    3. Inorganic Chemistry: Catherine Housecroft, Alan G. Sharpe.
    4. Atkins' Physical Chemistry, Peter W. Atkins, Julio de Paula.
    5. Cotton F.A. and Wilkinson, G. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
    6. Sharpe, A.G. Inorganic Chemistry
    7. Douglas, B.; McDaniel, D.H.; Alexander, J.J. Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry
    8. Greenwood, Norman, and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of Elements. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science, 1997. ISBN: 9780750633659

    Other reading materials will be assigned as and when required.

    Prerequisite: Chemical Principles (CHY111).

    CHY211
    Chemical Equilibrium
    5

    In this course, we adopt a case studies approach to understanding thermodynamic principles already familiar to students from earlier courses. In class we will explore real chemical questions involving equilibrium, acid base chemistry, electrochemistry, surface phenomena and solution chemistry by reading and discussing research papers.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    Entropy and Information

    • Absolute temperature
    • Shannon Entropy

    Thermodynamics & Thermochemistry

    • First, second and third laws of thermodynamics and their applications in chemistry
    • Enthalpy change and its impact on material science and biology
    • Enthalpies of formation and reaction enthalpies
    • Internal energy, entropy, Gibbs free energy
    • Ideal Gas Law
    • Kinetic Theory of Gases
    • Design of an air bag
    • Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

    Phase Equilibria

    • Phase diagrams and impact on material sciences
    • Phase transitions
    • Chemical equilibrium and its impact on technology and biochemistry
    • Changes in equilibria with temperature and pressure
    • Colligative properties
    • Raoult's Law
    • Ideal and non-ideal mixtures

    Acid-base equilibria

    • Open systems
    • Soil Equilibria & Acid Rain

    Chemical Kinetics

    • Determination of rate, order and rate laws
    • Impact of Chemical Kinetics on Biochemistry
    • Oxidation of glucose in biological systems

    Catalysis

    • Activation energy
    • Arrhenius equation
    • Kinetics; Mechanisms; Enzymes
    • Reducing Air Pollution from Automobiles

    Diffusion across membranes

    • Osmosis and reverse osmosis
    • Design of a water filter
    • Adsorption and Chromatography
    • Ion Exchange columns and water purification

    Electrochemistry in biology

    • Nernst Equilibrium Potential
    • Voltage-gated ion channels
    • Photosynthesis and solar cells

    Protein-ligand binding

    • Binding free energy
    • Force fields
    • Empirical potentials
    • Conformational freedom
    • Docking & scoring computer lab

    Statistical Thermodynamics

    • Microcanonical, Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles
    • Partition function
    • Molecular Dynamics computer lab
    • Monte Carlo simulations computer lab
    • Membrane Protein Simulations computer lab

    Molecular Reaction Dynamics

    • Transition State
    • Effect of translational and vibrational kinetic energy

    RECOMMENDED BOOK(S):

    1. Physical chemistry by Peter Atkins, Julio De Paula. Edition: 9th ed. South Asia Edition. Publisher: UK Oxford University Press 2011
    2. Physical chemistry by Gilbert W. Castellan, Edition: 3rd ed. Publisher: New Delhi. : Narosa Publishing House, 1985, 2004 
    3. Basic Physical Chemistry: The Route to Understanding by E. Brian Smith      ISBN:978-1-78826-293-9 Publisher: World Scientific
    4. Elements of Classical Thermodynamics for Advanced Students of Physics by A. B. Pippard [Paperback] ISBN:9780521091015
    5. A Farewell to Entropy: Statistical Thermodynamics Based on Information by Arieh Ben-Naim   ISBN:978-1-270-706-2 Publisher: World Scientific
    6. Physical Chemistry by Thomas Engel, Philip Reid. Publisher: New Delhi Pearson 2006

    Other reading materials will be assigned as and when required.

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles (CHY111).

    CHY212
    Chemical Applications of Group Theory
    2

    Symmetry operations and symmetry elements, Concepts and properties of a group, group multiplication Tables, Similarity transformation, Class, Determination of symmetry point group of molecules, Matrix representation of groups, reducible and irreducible representations, Great orthogonality theorem, Character tables, Direct Product and Spectroscopic selection rule, Molecular Vibrations, Normal coordinates, Symmetry of normal mode vibrations, Symmetry Adapted Linear Combination, Infrared and Raman active vibrations, Molecular orbitals, LCAO MO approach, HMO method, Hybrid orbitals, Free ion configuration, terms and states, splitting of levels and terms in a chemical environment, correlation diagrams, spectral and magnetic properties of the transition metal complexes.

    Course outline:

    • Introduction: Importance of Group Theory in Chemistry
    • Symmetry elements and symmetry operations: Use molecular models to identify symmetry elements of different molecules. Understanding of the interrelation of different symmetry elements present in a molecule, product of symmetry operations.
    • Point Groups: Concepts and properties of a group, group multiplication Tables, Similarity transformation, Class, Determination of symmetry point group of molecules.
    • Matrix representations and Character Tables: Matrix representation of groups, reducible and irreducible representations, Great orthogonality theorem, character tables.
    • SALC, direct product, Molecular vibrations: Direct Product and Spectroscopic selection rule, Molecular Vibrations, Normal coordinates, Symmetry of normal mode vibrations, Symmetry Adapted Linear Combination, Infrared and Raman active vibrations.
    • Molecular orbital Theory, Hybrid orbitals: Molecular orbitals, LCAO MO approach, HMO method, Hybrid orbitals.
    • Terms and states, Transition metals chemistry: Free ion configuration, terms and states, splitting of levels and terms in a chemical environment, correlation diagrams, spectral and magnetic properties of the transition metal complexes.
    CHY213
    Physical Methods in Chemistry
    4

    Analyses of compounds are an integral aspect of chemistry. We get to know the structure, spatial orientation and purity of compounds we synthesize through analysis which helps us to advance in our investigation. To address this purpose a bevy of instruments ranging from UV spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy to High Pressure Liquid Chromatography are available. However accurately understanding the output from these instruments is an essential attribute for a successful chemist. The purpose of this course is to familiarize the students with the basic principles of spectroscopic and diffraction methods that are instrumental to the analysis of molecules and structures in the day-to-day life of a chemist. In this course, we will learn to interpret and understand working of various types of analytical instruments commonly used for analysis in a chemistry lab.
    COURSE CONTENT:
    UV-visible spectroscopy: Beer–Lambert law, types of electronic transitions, effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and auxochrome. Bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shifts, Woodward–Fieser rules, Woodward rules, introduction to fluorescence.
    Vibrational spectroscopy: Molecular vibrations, Hooke’s law, Modes of vibration, Factors influencing vibrational frequencies: coupling of vibrational frequencies, hydrogen bonding, electronic effects, The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, Calibration of the Frequency Scale, Absorbance and Transmittance scale, intensity and position of IR bands, fingerprint region, characteristic absorptions of various functional groups and interpretation of IR spectra of simple organic molecules, basic mention of Raman Spectroscopy including the mutual exclusion principle, Raman and IR active modes of CO2.
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: Spinning nucleus, effect of an external magnetic field, precessional motion and precessional frequency, precessional frequency and the field strength, chemical shift and its measurement, factors influencing chemical shift and anisotropic effect, proton NMR spectrum, influence of restricted rotation, solvents used in NMR, solvent shift and concentration and temperature effect and hydrogen bonding, spin-spin splitting and coupling constants, chemical and magnetic equivalence in NMR, Lanthanide shift reagents, factors influencing the coupling constant, germinal coupling, vicinal coupling, heteronuclear coupling, deuterium exchange, proton exchange reactions.
    Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: Derivative curves, g values, Hyperfine splitting
    X-ray Diffraction: X-ray and diffraction of X-rays by atoms, Bragg’s law, lattice, crystal systems, planes and Miller indices, reciprocal lattice, crystal growth and mounting, diffractometer operation, recording diffraction pattern, reflection analysis and preliminary structure determination. ,
    Mass spectrometry: Basic principles, basic instrumentation, electron impact ionization, separation of ions in the analyzer, isotope abundances, molecular ions and metastable ions, basic fragmentation rules, factors influencing fragmentation, McLafferty rearrangements, chemical ionization.
    Data Analysis: Uncertainties, errors, mean, standard deviation, least square fit.

    Books:

    1. Spectroscopy of organic compounds, 6th Edition by P. S. KALSI, New Age International Publishers.
    2. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 6th Edition by R. M. Silverstein and F. X. Webster, Wiley Student Edition.
    3. Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications. Bernard Valeur, Wiley-VCH
    4. X-ray structure determination: A Practical Guide (2nd Ed.) by George H. Stout and Lyle H Jensen, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1989.

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles (CHY111), Basic Organic Chemistry-I (CHY122).

    CHY221
    Basic Organic Chemistry II
    4

    Organic reactions; nucleophilic substitution, elimination, addition and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with examples will be studied.
    COURSE CONTENT:
    A. Substitution reactions:

    Free radical halogenation, relative reactivity and selectivity, allylic and benzylic bromination
    Nucleophilic Subsititution (SN1, SN2, SN1′, SN2′,SNi)
    Electrophilic Substitution (SNAr, Addition Elimination vs. Elimination addition)
    Electrophilic aromatic substitution will be studied in detail

    B. Elimination reactions:

    Formation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions, Mechanism of E1, E2, E1cB reactions.
    Saytzeff and Hofmann eliminations.

    C. Addition reactions:
    a. Alkanes sigma bonds

    Chemistry of alkanes: Formation of alkanes, Organometallic reagents, Wurtz reaction, Wurtz-Fittig reactions.

    b. Alkenes and alkynes pi bonds

    Electrophilic additions their mechanisms (Markownikoff/ Anti-Markownikoff addition), mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration, hydroboration oxidation, ozonolysis, reduction (catalytic and chemical), syn and anti-hydroxylation(oxidation). 1,2-and 1,4-addition reactions in conjugated dienes and Diels-Alder reaction; electrophilic and nucleophilic additions. Hydration to form carbonyl compounds, alkylation of terminal alkynes.

    RECOMMENDED BOOK(S):

    1. Morrison, Robert Thornton & Boyd, Robert Neilson Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Seventh Edition, 2005.
    2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Sixth Edition, 2003.
    3. Clayden, Greeves, Warren and Wothers, Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press (2001).
    4. Peter Sykes, Mechanism in Organic Chemistry, (Pearson Education), Sixth Edition.
    5. Paula Yurkains Bruice Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall; 7th  edition (2013)

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles (CHY111), Basic Organic Chemistry-I (CHY122).

    CHY222
    Chemistry of Carbonyl Compounds
    4
    1. Nucleophilic Addition:
      • (a) Reactivity of carbonyl groups
      • (b) Cyanide as nucleophile- cyanohydrin formation
      • (c) Oxygen/sulfur as nucleophile - Acetals, Ketals and Hydrates
      • (d) Hydride as the nucleophile - Reduction reactions
      • (e) Carbon as nucleophile - Organometallics (Grignard and alkyl lithiums)
      • (f) Nitrogen as nucleophile - Imine and hydrazones.
      • (g) Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl analogs
    2. Nucleophilic Substitution:
      • (a) Reactivity of carboxylic acid family
      • (b) Oxygen/sulfur as nucleophile – Esters and carboxylic acids
      • (c) Nitrogen as nucleophile – Amides
      • (d) Acyl halides and anhydrides
      • (e) Hydride as the nucleophile - Reduction reactions
      • (f) Carbon as nucleophile - Organometallics (Grignard and alkyl lithium)
      • (g) Enantiomer resolution
      • (h) Nucleophilic Substitution at sulfuric and phosphoric acids
    3. The alpha carbanion – nucleophilic-electrophilic reactivity of carbonyls
      • (a) Enols and enolate anions
      • (b) Addition-dehydration – The aldol reaction
      • (c) Ester condensation
      • (d) Fragmentation of Beta-dicarbonyl compounds
      • (e) Alkylation of enolate anions
      • (f) Other stabilized carbanions and carbon nucleophiles
    4. Nucleophilic additions and substitutions in Synthesis
      • (a) Available reactions
      • (b) Experimental considerations
      • (c) The strategy of synthesis
      • (d) Synthesis examples

    Prerequisites: Basic Organic Chemistry-I (CHY122), Basic Organic Chemistry-II (CHY221).

    CHY241
    Electrochemistry
    3
    1. Electrical dimensions and unit, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, Theory of electrolytic dissociation, van’t Hoff factor and degree of dissociation, Specific Conductance, Equivalent conductance, Equivalent conductance at infinite dilution, Variation of equivalent conductance with concentration for strong and weak electrolytes, Conductance ratio and degree of dissociation, Equivalent conductance minima, Influence of dielectric constant on conductance, Kohlrausch’s law, Application of ion conductance, Ionic mobility, Influence of temperature on ionic conductance, Ion conductance and viscosity, Drift Speed, Variation of ionic mobility with ionic size and hydrodynamic radius, factors affecting the ionic mobility for strong electrolytes, Ionic Atmosphere, relaxation effect or asymmetry effect, Electrophoretic effect, partial molar quantities (briefly), partial molar free energy and chemical potential, Electrolytes as a non-ideal solution, activity coefficient, mean ionic activity, mean ionic molality, mean ionic activity coefficient, Outline of Debye-Hückel theory, Debye-Hückel’s limiting law, variation of activity coefficient with ionic strength, Nernst equation.
    2. General discussion about oxidation and reduction, electron transfer vs atom transfer, oxidation no.
    3. Concept of electrochemistry, Definition: Electrochemical cell, electrodes, salt bridge and its function etc. Battery; types of cell: Electrolytic cell vs Galvanic cell; concentration cell vs chemical cell, construction of a voltaic cell.
    4. Definition: Electrode potential, Std. potential and Formal potential; Physical significance of electrode potential.
    5. Types of electrodes: (i) metal electrode, advantage of amalgam electrode; (ii) non-metal electrode, e.g. hydrogen gas electrode, glassy carbon electrode. What is glassy carbon electrode? What is the difference between glassy carbon and graphite electrode? 
    6. Factors affecting the electrode potential: (i) effect of concentration, (ii) effect of pH e.g. formation of insoluble hydroxide and (iii) effect of precipitation and complexation.
    7. Application of electrode potential; Periodic trend of the reduction potential; Pourbaix diagram.
    8. Electroanalytical techniques: Potentiometry, Coulometry, Voltammetry and Amperometry.
    9. Measurement of electrode potential; 3 electrode system: working electrode, reference electrode and counter electrode; comparison between three and two electrode system; linear sweep voltammetry, Cyclic voltammetry (CV), Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) etc.
    10. Bulk electrolysis.

    Prerequisite: Chemical Principles (CHY111)

    Co-requisites: Chemical Equilibrium (CHY211).

    CHY242
    Coordination Chemistry
    4

    Metals ions play important role in producing colour in coordination complexes. Understanding of the coordination complexes lies at the heart of coordination chemistry. This course will focus on the basic concept of coordination chemistry and their quantification in photophysical and magnetic properties. Students will synthesize interesting colour compounds and perform reactions to promote the understanding of common reactions. Intensive use of analytical and spectroscopic techniques to interpret extent of reaction, purity of product and photophysical property particularly colour of the coordination complexes will be involved.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    • Introduction and structures of complexes:
    • Meaning of metal coordination and use of metal coordination in formation of color complex.
    • Coordination number, bonding of organic ligands to transition metals, coordination number, linkage isomerism, electronic effects, steric effects, the chelate effect, fluxional molecules.
    • Crystal field theory: application and limitation
    • Molecular orbital theory: Application in pi-bonding, electronic spectra including MLCT, LMCT d-d transition, and magnetic properties of complexes.
    • Inorganic substitution reaction; Types; Base catalyzed hydrolysis; Linear free energy relationship.
    • Reaction and kinetics: Nucleophilic substitution reactions, rate law, mechanism of reactions, trans effect, ligand field effect, inner sphere and outer sphere reactions.

    Text Books:

    1. Inorganic Chemistry; Principles of Structures and Reactivity: James E. Huheey; Allen A. Keiter;Richard L. Keiter, Pearson Edition.                            
    2. Inorganic Chemistry by Shriver & Atkins, 5th edition.
    3. Inorganic chemistry by Miessler, Gary L. Tarr, Donald A .
    4. Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J. D. Lee
    5. Application of physical methods to inorganic and bio-inorganic chemistry     by scot Robert A.; Lukehart, Charles M.

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles (CHY111) and Chemical equilibrium (CHY211). .

    CHY311
    Chemical Binding
    4

    Quantum mechanics provides the microscopic basis for a fundamental understanding of chemistry, molecular structure, bonding, and reactivity. This course and the associated computer lab provide a comprehensive treatment of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, post Hartree-Fock wave function and density functional methods. Students will learn to compute molecular structures, spectra, and thermochemical parameters for molecules in the gas-phase and for condensed-phase systems.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    • Postulates of Quantum Mechanics
    • Atomic Orbitals and Basis Sets
    • The Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the molecular Hamiltonian
    • The Concept of the Potential Energy Surface
    • Geometry Optimization and Frequency Analysis
    • Semi-empirical and ab initio Quantum Mechanics
    • Variation and Perturbation Theory
    • Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital theories
    • Independent-Particle Models: the Hartree method
    • Spin, statistics and the Pauli principle
    • The Hartree-Fock Self-Consistent Field equations
    • Electron Correlation, Density Matrices and Natural Orbitals
    • Density Functional Theory
    • Periodic systems
    • Implicit and explicit solvent methods
    • QM/MM and ONIOM

    RECOMMENDED BOOK(S):

    1. Frank Jensen: Introduction to Computational Chemistry (Wiley)
    2. Henry Eyring, John Walter and George E. Kimball: Elementary Quantum Chemistry (John Wiley)
    3. J. N. Murrell, S. F. A. Kettle, J. M. Tedder: Valence Theory  [ELBS & John Wiley]
    4. Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton & Matthew Sands: The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.III (Addison Wesley Longman)
    5. James B. Foresman, AEleen Frisch, Exploring Chemistry With Electronic Structure Methods: A Guide to Using Gaussian (Gaussian, Inc.)
    6. Errol G. Lewars, Computational Chemistry: Introduction to the Theory and Applications of Molecular and Quantum Mechanics (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003)
    7. N. Sukumar, ed. A Matter of Density: Exploring the Electron Density Concept in the Chemical, Biological, and Materials Sciences (John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2013)

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles, Calculus, Linear Algebra, physics, CS.

    Co-requisite: Molecular Spectroscopy.

    CHY313
    Molecular Spectroscopy
    3

    In this course, Rotational, Vibrational, UV-Visible, Fluorescence, Mass and NMR spectroscopy methods will be taught. Chemists often adopt these techniques to identify the electronic and molecular structures of chemical and biochemical systems. Students will achieve a knowledge about the behaviour of molecular systems in presence of an external electromagnetic field in different frequency ranges. The principle along with comprehensive theories for each of the spectroscopy method will be discussed in the classes.

    Course Aims

    The main aim of this course is to provide students a concept about how these commonly used molecular spectroscopy techniques work, a theoretical knowledge of each of these methods and their usage in molecular and electronic structure determination.

    Learning Outcomes

    On successful completion of the course, students will be able to

    (i) explain the behaviour of molecular systems in external electromagnetic field.

    (ii) understand the principles and theories of rotational, vibrational, UU-Vis, Fluorescence, Mass and NMR spectroscopy methods.

    (iii) interpret the molecular spectra and find molecular properties from molecular spectra.

    Curriculum Content

    Introduction: Meaning of spectroscopy and use of different spectroscopic tools to understand diverse applications.

    Origin of a spectra: Revision of electromagnetic spectrum and Energy associated with them, factors affecting line broadening and intensity of lines, selection rules.

    Rotational spectroscopy: Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules, Effect of isotopic substitution, Non-rigid rotator, Application of rotational spectroscopy.

    Vibrational spectroscopy: Vibrational spectroscopy, vibration-rotation spectrum, breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, vibration of polyatomic molecules, applications.

    UV-vis spectroscopy: Theory of UV-Vis/electronic spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer’s Law, Woodward-Fieser Rules, Chemical analysis by electronic spectroscopy.

    Fluorescence spectroscopy: Introduction to fluorescence spectroscopy: Jablonski diagram, Frank-Condon principle, Stokes shift, solvent relaxation, solvatochromism, excimer and exciplex formation, quantum yield & life time. Spin-orbit coupling.

    Mass spectroscopy: Introduction to mass spectroscopy: isotope effect, fragmentation patterns, applications.

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): Theory of NMR, isotopes, Spinning nucleus, effect of an external magnetic field, precessional motion and precessional frequency, and the field strength, temperature effect, Boltzman distribution, origin of chemical shift and its implication in magnetic field strength, anisotropic effect, proton NMR spectrum, carbon NMR, concept of multi-dimensional NMR, influence of restricted rotation, fluxiaonal molecules, conformational dynamics, solvents used in NMR, solvent shift and concentration and temperature effect and hydrogen bonding, spin-spin splitting and coupling constants, chemical and magnetic equivalence in NMR, factors influencing the coupling constant, geminal coupling, vicinal coupling, heteronuclear coupling, deuterium exchange.

     

    Tutorials:

    1. Basics of Spectroscopy.
    2. Origin of Spectra and factors affecting the spectral line and intensity.
    3. Rotational Spectroscopy.
    4. IR Spectroscopy tutorial (characteristic absorption of common classes of organic compounds)
    5. IR Spectroscopy tutorial (application of IR spectroscopy to isomerism, identification of functional groups)
    6. IR Spectroscopy tutorial (effects of water and hydrogen bonding)
    7. UV Spectroscopy tutorial (calculation of for conjugated organic compounds)
    8. UV Spectroscopy tutorial ( for α, β unsaturated organic compounds and solvent effects)
    9. Role of fragmentation and rearrangement reaction during mass spectroscopic analysis.
    10. Application of shielding and deshielding effects.
    11. Chemical shift and coupling constants of alkane.
    12. Chemical shift and coupling constants of alkenes and alkynes.
    13. Assignment of 1H and 13C NMR signals of aromatic compounds.
    14. How to determine enantiomeric excess by NMR spectroscopy.
    15. Interpretation of 2D NMR and it’s application for the characterization of organic molecules.

    Recommended Books:

    • Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill 1995) by C. N. Banwell  and E.M. McCash
    • Atkins' Physical Chemistry (Oxford University Press 2010) by Peter Atkins and Julio De Paula
    • Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds (John Wiley & Sons 2005) by R. M. Silverstein and F. X. Webster.
    • Basic One and Two – Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy (Wiley – VCH 2011) by Horst Friebolin.
    • Organic Spectroscopy (Palgrave Macmillan 2008) by William Kemp.
    • Organic Spectroscopy (Springer 2005) by L D S Yadav

    Prerequisites: Physical Methods in Chemistry (CHY213); Chemical Applications of Group Theory (CHY212).

    Co-requisite: Chemical Binding (CHY311).

    CHY321
    Named Organic Reactions and Mechanism
    3

    C-C bond forming reactions and their mechanism focusing on Carbanion alkylation, Carbonyl addition and carbonyl substitution reactions, Conjugate addition reactions (1,2-addition & 1,4- addition), Reactions of alkene, alkynes and aromatics. C-N and C-O bond forming reactions and their mechanism. Glycosylation reactions. Oxidation and reduction reactions, Rearrangement reactions, Free radical reactions. Photochemical reactions and mechanism, Norrish type I and II reactions, Electrophilic substitution reactions. These types of reactions will be taught under
    following name reactions.

    1. C-C Bond forming reactions and Mechanism - Grignard Reaction, Aldol Condensation, Diels Alder Reaction, Ring Closing Metathesis, Heck Reaction, Negishi Reaction, Suzuki Reaction, Benzoin condensation, Reformatsky reaction, Ugi reaction, Wittig reaction, Morita-Baylis-Hillmann Reaction.
    2. C-N Bond forming reactions and Mechanism - Ullmann reaction, Buchwald and Hartwig reaction, Metal free C-N bond formation reactions, Fisher Peptide synthesis, Hetero Diels Alder reaction, Click reaction.
    3. C-O Bond forming reactions and Mechanism - Allan-Robinson Reaction, Baeyer-Villiger Reaction, Fisher Oxazole synthesis, Ferrier Reaction, Glycosidation reaction, Sharpless asymmetric Epoxidation.
    4. Oxidation, Reduction reactions and Mechanism - Bayer-Villeger oxidation, Dess-Martin periodinane oxidation, Swern Oxidation, Corey–Kim oxidation, Jones Oxidation, Luche reduction, Birch reduction, Gribble reduction.
    5. Rearrangement Reactions and Mechanism - Benzilbenzilic acid rearrangement, Pinacol Pinacolone rearrangement, Fries rearrangement, Amadori rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement, Demzanov rearrangement, Payne rearrangement, Wallach rearrangement, Ferrier rearrangement
    6. Conjugate addition reactions and Mechanism - 1,2-addition reaction, 1,4-addition reaction, Reformatsky reaction, Prins reaction, Michael reaction
    7. Photochemical reactions and Mechanism - Norish type I reaction, Norish type II reaction

    Prerequisites: Basic Organic Chemistry-II (CHY221).

    CHY323
    Organometallic Chemistry
    3

    The course will discuss various organometallic compounds involving Pd, Pt, Cr, Mo, Mn, their various complexes with several organic ligands and their application in the synthesis of heterocycles and natural products. The course will also cover all the name reactions involving organometallics. Since the advent of Pd as a suitable metal for C-C bond formation along with Ru-in Grubbs Metathesis the present pharmaceutical industry relies heavily on organometallics. Nearly 40% of the reactions in the lab involve organometallics. The intricacies of the reactions, the subtlety of the condition in the reactions involving organometallic compounds requires utmost understand of the mechanism of the reactions. Hence this course will provide an in-depth understanding of organometallic reactions and their applications.

    Reference Books:

    1. The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (6th Edition) by Robert H. Crabtree.
    2. Organotransition Metal Chemistry: From Bonding to Catalysis; 1st edition (10 February 2010) by John F. Hartwig.
    3. Basic Organometallic Chemistry: Concepts, Syntheses and Applications (Paperback) 2nd edition by B.D. Gupta, Anil J. Elias.
    CHY332
    Informatics & Molecular Modelling
    3

    This course and the associated computer lab deal with Molecular Modelling and Cheminformatics, applied to the search for new drugs or materials with specific properties or specific physiological effects (in silico Drug Discovery). Students will learn the general principles of structure-activity relationship modelling, docking & scoring, homology modelling, statistical learning methods and advanced data analysis. They will gain familiarity with software for structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery. Some coding and scripting will be required.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    1. Introduction:
      • Drug Discovery in the Information-rich age
      • Introduction to Pattern recognition and Machine Learning
      • Supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms and examples
      • Applications potential of Machine learning in Cheminformatics & Bioinformatics
      • Introduction to Classification and Regression methods
    2. Representation of Chemical Structure and Similarity:
      • Sequence Descriptors
      • Text mining
      • Representations of 2D Molecular Structures: SMILES
      • Chemical File Formats, 3D Structure
      • Descriptors and Molecular Fingerprints
      • Graph Theory and Topological Indices
      • Progressive incorporation of chemically relevant information into molecular graphs
      • Substructural Descriptors
      • Physicochemical Descriptors
      • Descriptors from Biological Assays
      • Representation and characterization of 3D Molecular Structures
      • Pharmacophores
      • Molecular Interaction Field Based Models
      • Local Molecular Surface Property Descriptors
      • Quantum Chemical Descriptors
      • Shape Descriptors
      • Protein Shape Comparisons, Motif Models
      • Molecular Similarity Measures
      • Chemical Space and Network graphs
      • Semantic technologies and Linked Data
    3. Mapping Structure to Response: Predictive Modelling:
      • Linear Free Energy Relationships
      • Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) Modeling
      • Ligand-Based and Structure-Based Virtual High Throughput Screening
      • 3D Methods - Pharmacophore Modeling and alignment
      • ADMET Models
      • Activity Cliffs
      • Structure Based Methods, docking and scoring
      • Model Domain of Applicability
    4. Data Mining and Statistical Methods:
      • Linear and Non-Linear Models
      • Data preprocessing and performance measures in Classification & Regression
      • Feature selection
      • Principal Component analysis
      • Partial Least-Squares Regression
      • kNN, Classification trees and Random forests
      • Cluster and Diversity analysis
      • Introduction to kernel methods
      • Support vector machines classification and regression
      • Introduction to Neural Nets
      • Self-Organized Maps
      • Deep Neural Networks
      • Introduction to evolutionary computing
      • Genetic Algorithms
      • Data Fusion
      • Model Validation
      • Best Practices in Predictive Cheminformatics

    RECOMMENDED BOOK(S):

    1. Johann Gasteiger, Thomas Engel,Chemoinformatics: A Textbook (Wiley-VCH, 2003)
    2. Jürgen Bajorath (Editor), Chemoinformatics and Computational Chemical Biology (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Humana Press, 2004)
    3. Leach & Gillet, An Introduction to Chemoinformatics

    Prerequisites: Basic Organic chemistry/Biochemistry, Basic Statistics, Computer Programming.

    CHY342
    Chemistry of Solids and Surfaces
    3

    In this course the students will get to know the chemistry behind the formation of solids and on their surfaces, the kind of bonding involved and the available techniques to characterize them. Through this course students will also learn how to interpret various chemical structures of solids and their surfaces. Students will further understand crystallographic terminology, selected diffraction theory, nomenclature at surfaces, reconstruction and relaxations at surfaces and how to determine the surface structure. They will also realize the wide range of chemical information available from diffraction based techniques. Further the students will learn about different surface phenomena such as adsorption, catalysis, work function, and basics of the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties, and their relevance to nanomaterials. This is a required course for Chemistry majors, but also satisfies UWE requirements for non-majors.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    • INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY
    • CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY
      • Introduction to Crystallography
      • Unit cells and Crystal Systems
      • Symmetry, Lattice, Lattice spacing
      • Crystal Densities and Packing
      • Crystallographic Notations
    • BONDING IN SOLIDS
      • Overview on Bonding
        • Ionic, Covalent, Metallic, van der Waals and Hydrogen Bonding
      • Born-Haber Cycle
      • The Shapes of Molecules
      • Intermolecular Forces
    • CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
      • Properties of X-Rays
      • X-Ray Emission & Absorption
      • X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
      • Point, Line, Interface & Bulk Defects
    • AMORPHOUS MATERIALS
      • Introduction to Glasses
      • Glass Properties
    • INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY of SURFACES
    • Surface structure

                   Nomenclature

                   Surface unit cell

                   Relaxation and reconstruction at surfaces and its relevance to nanomaterials

                   How to characterize atomic structure at surfaces

    • Basics of different phenomena at surfaces

    Surface energy

    Electronic structure, 2D Brillouin zone, photoemission

    Work function

    Magnetic properties and relevance to nanomaterials

    Optical properties

    Adsorption and catalysis

    Two dimensional structures

    Recommended reading:

    1. 1. P. Atkins and J. dePaula, Atkins' Physical Chemistry
    2. A. R. West, Basic Solid State Chemistry.L. Smart and E. Moore, Solid State Chemistry An Introduction
    3. J. P. Glusker, K. N. Trueblood, Crystal Structure Analysis
    4. W. Clegg, Crystal Structure Determination
    5. J.M. Blakely, Introduction to the properties of Crystal Surfaces, New York, Plenum Press 1973.
    6. G A Somarjai, Chemistry in Two Dimensions: Surfaces, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press 1981.
    7. A. Zangwill, Physics at Surfaces, New York: Cambridge University Press 1988.
    8. Surface Science, An Introduction, John B. Hudson, 1992, Butterworth-Heinemann.
    9. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films – Springer, by H Lüth.
    10. Modern Techniques of surface Science, Second Edition D.P. Woodruff and T A Delchar, Cambridge University Press 1994.

    Prerequisites: Chemical Principles (CHY111), Physics (PHY101/102 or PHY103/104).

    CHY351
    Macromolecules
    3

    In this course we will learn cellular macromolecules namely carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and chemical synthesized polymers. As monomers are the key building blocks, we will discuss the chemistry associated with these monomers including nomenclature, stereochemistry, associated chemical reactions and their importance. Classes will be through a combination of lectures, presentations and assignments. Students participation in discussion is required. The assessment will be based on quiz, exams and presentation.

    Course Aims

     

    • To provide students with basic understanding of macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, polymers and corresponding monomers

    • To enable students gaining knowledge of cellular macromolecules and polymers in day to day life

    • To see the biomolecules or polymers in the view of atomic level i.e. C, H, N, O

    • To learn about macromolecules, not only from a structural but from an atomic point of view as well

    • To develop students’ skills in chemistry, biochemistry to analyse in scientific way

    Learning Outcomes

    • On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
    • Gain the knowledges and the importance of macromolecules in daily life

    • Formulate a strategy for solving the problems related to macromolecules

    • Know the significance of chemical bonding and their structures which significantly tune the properties and functions

    • Solve chemical problems competently and rationally estimate the solution

    • Learn chemical understanding in biochemistry that will provide solid platform to know advanced biochemistry in next semester

    • Improve presentation skill, innovative thinking,

    Curriculum Content

    1. Introduction of Macromolecules and Polymers

    2. Carbohydrates

      1. Introduction

      2. Function and importance in chemistry and biology

      3. Class of Carbohydrates

        1. Monosaccharides: definitions and functions

        2. Nomenclature

        3. Fischer Projections and D/L notation

        4. Open chain and cyclic structure of pentose, hexose sugars

        5. Determination of configuration/ absolute, mutarotation

        6. Ascending and descending in Monosaccharides

        7. Chemical Reactions of Monosaccharides

        8. Oligosaccharides, Examples and functions

        9. Polysaccharides

          1. Homo and hetero Polysaccharides

          2. Examples and their functions (Starch, Glycogen, Dextran, Cellulose, Chitin, Alginates)

      4. Glycoconjugates: Proteoglycans, Glycoproteins and Glycolipids

      5. Structural and Functions of glycoproteins

    1. Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)

      1. Introduction

      2. Nucleic Acids

      3. Classes of Nucleic acids

      4. Building-Blocks

        1. Purine and Pyrimidine bases,

        2. Sugars and Phosphates

      5. Structures, Examples and functions of Nucleosides & Nucleotides

      6. Structures of Polynucleotides i.e. Nucleic acids

      7. Forces for Stabilities of Base-pairing

      8. Primary, secondary structure of DNA

      9. Watson and Crick's Model

      10. Minor and major grooves in DNA

      11. A, B and Z-DNA and their biological relevance

      12. DNA Transcription and DNA translation

      13. RNA: Basic structure and functions

      14. Summary of Nucleic acid

    1. Amino acids, peptide and proteins

      1. Amino Acids (name, structures, three letter code, one letter code)

      2. Common features of Amino acids (AA)

      3. Number of carbons in amino acids

      4. D, L classification and configurations of amino acids

      5. Classification of AA side chains by chemical properties (Polar, non-polar, ionic amino acids)

      6. Acid base properties of amino acids (pKa calculations)

      7. Ionization of AAs (Zwitter ion, isoelectric point and electrophoresis)

      8. Peptide, oligopeptides structures and proteins

      9. Reaction of amino acids N terminus and C terminus

        1. Ester of carboxylic group,

        2. Acetylation of amino group,

        3. Complexation with Cu+2 ions

        4. Ninhydrin test

        5. Post translational modifications (phosphorylation, glycosylation etc.)

      10. Preparation of amino acids

        1. Strecker synthesis

        2. Gabriels phthalimide synthesis

      11. Protein Structure and quick overview of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure

      12. Structure determination of peptides

        1. N-terminal analysis by Edmann degradation

        2. C-terminal (thiohydantoin and carboxypeptidase).

        3. Synthesis of simple dipeptides by N-protection (t-butoxycarbonyl and phthaloyl)

        4. C-activating group and Merrifield solid phase synthesis.

      13. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Proteins,

      14. Protein Evolution

      15. Summary of Proteins

    1. Polymers

      1. Basic concepts in Polymer Chemistry

        1. Nomenclature

        2. Classification

        3. Structure and properties of Polymers

        4. Natural Occurring Polymers/synthetic polymers

      1. Polymer synthesis

        1. Step-growth polymerization

        2. Chain Growth Polymerization

          1. Free Radical

          2. Ionic (Cationic and Anionic)

      2. Molecular weight determination

        1. Number average and weight average MW

        2. Measurement of Number average MW

      3. Polymer morphology

        1. Amorphous state and rheology

        2. Glass transition temperature

        3. Crystallinity

        4. Liquid crystallinity

      4. Polymer properties (Structure property correlation)

        1. Mechanical Properties

        2. Thermal Stability

        3. Polymer degradation

        4. Chemical resistance

        5. Molecular weight and intermolecular force

        6. Physical and chemical crosslinking

        7. Non-linear optical properties

        8. Applications of polymers

    Prerequisites: CHY221.

    CHY498
    Senior Project
    6

    Individual faculty mentor(s) assigned to each student.

    Undergraduate research allows students to integrate and reinforce chemistry knowledge from their formal course work, develop their scientific and professional skills, and create new scientific knowledge. Original research culminating in a comprehensive written report provides an effective means for integrating undergraduate learning experiences, and allows students to participate directly in the process of science. Students enrolled in this course carry out an individual hands-on project over the full academic year, on a topic chosen from any area of Chemistry, and are assigned to a faculty mentor for their supervision.

    Course Evaluation: This course will be evaluated based on:

    1. an Oral Presentation and Examination before the Department, at the end of the first semester of research, dealing with the formulation of the research problem and survey of existing literature in the field. The student will be expected to demonstrate sufficient mastery of the background in the subject necessary to carry out research.
    2. a comprehensive written Project Report and Oral Presentation / Examination before the Department, at the completion of the project. The Project Report should contain a comprehensive account of the student’s research, and should demonstrate the student’s understanding of the research area, familiarity with the techniques used, and ability to report research data in a clear manner and to draw logical conclusions from the results.

    This course carries an S/U grade.

    CHY499
    Senior Project
    6

    Individual faculty mentor(s) assigned to each student.

    Undergraduate research allows students to integrate and reinforce chemistry knowledge from their formal course work, develop their scientific and professional skills, and create new scientific knowledge. Original research culminating in a comprehensive written report provides an effective means for integrating undergraduate learning experiences, and allows students to participate directly in the process of science. Students enrolled in this course carry out an individual hands-on project over the full academic year, on a topic chosen from any area of Chemistry, and are assigned to a faculty mentor for their supervision.

    Course Evaluation: This course will be evaluated based on:

    1. an Oral Presentation and Examination before the Department, at the end of the first semester of research, dealing with the formulation of the research problem and survey of existing literature in the field. The student will be expected to demonstrate sufficient mastery of the background in the subject necessary to carry out research.
    2. a comprehensive written Project Report and Oral Presentation / Examination before the Department, at the completion of the project. The Project Report should contain a comprehensive account of the student’s research, and should demonstrate the student’s understanding of the research area, familiarity with the techniques used, and ability to report research data in a clear manner and to draw logical conclusions from the results.

    This course carries an S/U grade.

    MAT084
    Basic Probability and Statistics
    4

    Core course for B.Sc. (Research) Biotechnology. Only available as UWE with prior permission of Department of Mathematics. Does not count towards Minor in Mathematics.

    Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab)= 3:1:0 (3 lectures +1 tutorial weekly)

    Prerequisites: Class XII Mathematics or MAT 020 (Elementary Calculus) or MAT 101 (Calculus I)

    Overview: Probability is the means by which we model the inherent randomness of natural phenomena. This course provides an introduction to a range of techniques for understanding randomness and variability, and for understanding relationships between quantities. The concluding portions on Statistics take up the problem of testing our theoretical models against actual data, as well as applying the models to data in order to make decisions. This course will act as an introduction to probability and statistics for students from natural sciences, social sciences and humanities.

    Detailed Syllabus:

    1. Describing data: scales of measurement, frequency tables and graphs, grouped data, stem and leaf plots, histograms, frequency polygons and ogives, percentiles and box plots, graphs for two characteristics
    2. Summarizing data: Measures of the middle: mean, median, mode; Measures of spread: variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, percentiles, interquartile range; Chebyshev’s inequality, normal data sets, Measures for relationship between two characteristics; Relative risk and Odds ratio
    3. Elements of Probability: Sample space and events, basic definitions and rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem, independent events
    4. Sampling: Population and samples, reasons for sampling, methods of sampling, standard error, Population parameter and sample statistic
    5. Special random variables and their distributions: Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Normal, Exponential, Gamma, distributions arising from the Normal: Chi-­‐square, t, F
    6. Distributions of Sampling statistics: Sampling distribution of the mean, The central limit theorem, Determination of sample size, standard deviation versus standard error, the sample variance, sampling distributions from a normal population, sampling from a finite population
    7. Estimation: Maximum likelihood estimator; Interval estimates; Estimating the confidence interval for population mean, variance and proportions; Confidence intervals for the difference between independent means
    8. Hypothesis testing: Null and alternate hypothesis; Significance levels; Type  I  and  Type  II  errors;  Tests  based  on  Normal,  t,  F  and  Chi-­‐Square distributions for testing of mean, variance and proportions, Tests for independence  of  attributes,  Goodness  of  fit;  Non-­‐parametric  tests:  the sign test, the Signed Rank test, Wilcoxon Rank-­‐Sum Test.
    9. Analysis of variance: Comparing three or more means: One-­‐way analysis of variance, Two-­‐factor analysis of variance, Two-­‐way analysis of variance with interaction
    10. Correlation and Regression: Correlation, calculating correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, Spearman’s rank correlation; Linear regression, Least square estimation of regression parameters, distribution of the estimators, assumptions and inferences in regression; analysis of residuals: assessing the model; transforming to linearity; weighted least squares; polynomial regression

    Main References:

    • Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists by Sheldon Ross, 2nd edition, Harcourt Academic Press.

    Other References:

    • Basic and Clinical Biostatistics by Beth Dawson-­‐Saunders and Robert G. Trapp, 2nd edition, Appleton and Lange.
    • John E. Freund’s Mathematical Statistics with Applications by I. Miller & M. Miller, 7th edition, Pearson, 2011.

    Past Instructors: Sneh Lata, Suma Ghosh

    MAT103
    Mathematical Methods I
    4

    Core course for all B.Tech. Optional for B.Sc. (Research) Chemistry. Not open as UWE.

    Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab)= 3:1:0 (3 lectures and 1 tutorial weekly)

    Prerequisites: Class XII Mathematics.

    Overview:  In this course we study multi-variable calculus. Concepts of derivatives and integration will be developed for higher dimensional spaces. This course has direct applications in most engineering applications. 

    Detailed Syllabus:

    1. Review of high school calculus.
    2. Parametric curves (Vector functions): plotting, tangent, arc-length, polar coordinates, derivatives and integrals.                                                                    
    3. Functions of several variables: level curves and surfaces, differentiation of functions of several variables, gradient, unconstrained and constrained optimization.
    4. Double and triple integrals: integrated integrals, polar coordinates, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, change of variables.
    5. Vector fields, divergence and curl, Line and surface integrals, Fundamental Theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss.

    References:

    1. A Banner, The Calculus Lifesaver, Princeton University Press.
    2. James Stewart, Essential Calculus – Early Transcendentals, Cengage.
    3. G B Thomas and R L Finney, Calculus and Analytic Geometry, Addison-Wesley.
    4. Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wiley.

    Past Instructors: Ajit Kumar, Sneh Lata

    PHY103
    Fundamentals of Physics I
    5

    This is an introductory course for students majoring in physics or those who are planning to take physics as their minor.  It will provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian Methods, and to the Special Theory of Relativity.  

     Physics and its relation to other sciences.  
     Time and Distance. Frames of reference and the inertial frames of reference.  
      Vector Analysis, Coordinate systems, Dimensional Analysis  
     Newton’s laws of motion in one dimension.  
     Rotational invariance. Newtons’s laws of motion in three dimension  
     Conservation of energy and momentum.  
     Oscillations.  
     The Lagrangian method.  
     Rotation in two dimensions. Rotation in three dimensions.
     Central forces  
     The Special Theory of Relativity.  Space-Time and four vectors.  
     Accelerating frames of reference

    PHY104
    Fundamentals of Physics II
    5

    Vector Analysis 
    Electrostatics: Electric Field, Divergence and Curl of Electrostatic Fields, Electric Potential, Work and Energy in Electrostatics, Conductors 
    Potentials: Laplace's Equation, Method of Images, Multipole Expansion 
    Electric Fields in Matter: Polarization, Field of a Polarized Object, Electric Displacement, Linear Dielectrics 
    Magnetostatics: Lorentz Force Law, Biot-Savart law, Divergence and Curl of Magenetic Field, Magnetic Vector Potential 
    Magnetic Fields in Matter: Magnetization, Field of a Magnetized Object, Auxiliary Field, Linear and Nonlinear Media 
    Electrodynamics: Electromotive Force, Electromagnet Induction, Maxwell's Equations 
    Conservation Laws: Charge and Energy, Momentum, Work 
    Electromagnetic Waves: Waves in One Dimension, Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum, Electromagnetic Waves in matter

    PHY105
    Introduction to Computational Physics I
    3

    Introduction to Python: General information, Operators, Functions, Modules, Arrays, Formatting, Printing output, Writing a program
    Approximation of a function: Interpolation, Least-squares Approximation              
    Roots of Equations: Method of Bisection, Method based on Linear Interpolation,              
    Newton-Raphson Method              
    Numerical Differentiation: Finite Difference Approximation              
    Numerical Integration: Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson's Rule              
    Ordinary Differential Equations: Taylor Series Method, Runge-Kutta Methods, Shooting Method

    Elective Courses

    In-depth electives provide not only advanced instruction, but also development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills and computational data analysis and modelling. Students are expected to be able to define problems clearly, develop testable hypotheses, design and execute experiments, analyse data using appropriate statistical methods, and draw appropriate conclusions, applying an understanding of all chemistry sub-disciplines. Students are also expected to be able to use the peer-reviewed scientific literature effectively and evaluate technical articles critically, learning how to retrieve specific information from the chemical literature, with the use of online, interactive database-searching tools.

    The credit requirements for B.Sc (Research) Chemistry are: 152 credits = 68 credits in core Chemistry courses (17 Introductory + 26 Foundation + 25 In-Depth) + 21 required Physics/Maths/Life Sci + 9 credits Chemistry electives + 12 credits Senior Project. + 42 credits of CCC & UWE courses (minimum 18 credits of each).

    Course code
    Title
    Credit
    BIO204
    Biochemistry
    3

    Properties and importance of water, intra and intermolecular forces, non-covalent

    interactions- electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, Vander Waals interactions, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Disulphide bridges. pH, pK, acid base reactions and buffers.

    Carbohydrates: Different carbohydrates and with examples of glucose, galactose, sucrose, starch and glycogen. Carbohydrates metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, Pentose phosphate pathway, Glyoxylate cycle.

    Proteins: Classification and properties of amino acids, Classification based on structure and functions, structural organization of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures), biosynthesis of protein. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten equation, significance of Km , Vmax and Kcat. Lineweaver – Burk plot. Biosynthesis and degradation of aromatic and branched chain amino acids.

    Nucleic acids: Structure and properties of nucleic acids. Different forms of DNA-A, B, Z. Circular DNA and DNA supercoiling. Different types of RNA- mRNA, and non coding RNA – tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA and siRNA. Synthesis and regulation of purine nucleotides by de novo pathway. Salvage of purine nucleotides. Synthesis and regulation of pyramidine nucleotides. Formation of deoxyribonucleotides and their regulation. Degradation of purines and pyrimidine nucleotides, disorders of nucleotide metabolism

    Lipids: Classification, structure, properties and functions of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and eicosanoids- prostaglandlins. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - synthesis, β-oxidation and regulation. Ketone bodies. Synthesis of triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

    Vitamins: Source, structure, biological role and deficiency disorders of vitamins .

    Recommended Books:

    • Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (5th ed.), Nelson, D., Cox, D., Pub: Macmillan Pub.
    • Biochemistry (6th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: Freeman-Tappan.
    • Text Book of Biochemistry by West, E. S., Todd, W. R., Bruggen, J. T V., Pub: Mac Milan.
    • Principles of Biochemistry by White, A., Handler, P., Smith, E. L., Pub: McGraw Hill.
    • Harper's Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., et al., 27 ed., Pub: Langeman
    • Biochemistry (3rd ed.), Voet, D., Voet, J. G., Pub: John Wiley.
    • Biochemistry, Mathews, et. al., Pub: Pearson         
    CHY322
    Organic Reaction and Synthesis
    3

    COURSE CONTENT:

    1. Electrophilic addition to carbons
    1. Electrophilic aromatic substitution
    2. Common heterocycles and their reactions
    3. Electrophilic addition to carbon-carbon multiple bonds.
      1. Rearrangement reactions
    1. Migration to C, N, O and B
    2. Free radical rearrangements
    3. Anion rearrangement
    4. Sigmatropic rearrangements
      1. Oxidation and Reduction reactions
    1. Oxidation/Reduction of carbonyls
    2. Reductive elimination and fragmentation
    3. Olefin reduction
    4. Reductive deoxygenation of carbonyl groups
    5. Chemoselective oxidation and reduction reactions of functional groups
      1. Cycloaddition, unimolecular rearrangement and thermal eliminations
    1. Name reactions and mechanism
    2. Applications and limitations of the major reactions in organic synthesis
    3. Application in natural product synthesis
    4. Literature review
      1. Reaction involving transition metals
    1. Name reactions and mechanism,
    2. Applications and limitations of the major reactions in organic synthesis.
    3. Application in natural product synthesis
    4. Literature review

    Each topic will end with a discussion section, where student participation is important.

    Prerequisites: Basic Organic Chemistry-II (CHY221).

    CHY334
    Environmental Chemistry
    2

    Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic and soil chemistry. During this course chemistry of the air, water, and soil, and how anthropogenic activities affect this chemistry on planet Earth will be covered. Specifically, sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in air, water, and soil environments, and the effects of technology thereon will be examined. This course is divided into 5 major parts that reflect the most pressing issues in Environmental Chemistry today.

    1.Fundamental concepts

    2.Introduction to Environmental Chemistry: Chemistry and the atmosphere, hydrosphere and soil, the role of chemistry in environmental studies; 

    3.The Hydrosphere: Fundamentals of aquatic chemistry, speciation and redox equilibria in natural waters, gases in water, organic matter in water, metals in water, environmental colloids, water pollution and waste water treatment,  microplastics chemical aspects of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles; 

    4.The Atmosphere: Introduction to the nature and composition of the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect and global warming, the case against global warming, Energy production and global warming, Climate Change and Energy.

    5. The Biosphere: Nitrogen and food production, pest control

    CHY344
    Topics In Nanotechnology
    3

    The next few years will see dramatic advances in atomic-scale technology. Molecular machines, nanocircuits, and the like will transform all aspects of modern life - medicine, energy, computing, electronics and defense are all areas that will be radically reshaped by nanotechnology. These technologies all involve the manipulation of structures at the atomic level - what used to be the stuff of fantasy is now reality. The economics impact of these developments has been estimated to be in the trillions of dollars. But, as with all new technologies, ethical and legal challenges will arise in their implementation and further development. This course will examine the science of nanotechnology and place it in the larger social context of how this technology may be, and already is, applied. Underlying physical science principles will be covered in lecture sessions and students will read articles from current news sources and the scientific literature. There will be presentations on scientific literature on topics of student interests, to examine the science and applications of a well-defined aspect of nanotechnology of their choosing. Lecture material will focus on the principles behind modern materials such as semi-conductors (organic, inorganic) and novel nanostructures.

    COURSE CONTENT:

    • Introduction
    • Bulk Vs. Nano
    • Quantum confinement effect
    • Surface area to volume ratio
    • Effect on Properties: Material (electrical, magnetic, mechanical etc.) and structural properties
    • Carbon nano-architectures: Fullerene, SWNT, MWNT, Graphite etc., Classification of structure
    • Q-Dots • Bonding parameters
    • Methods of preparation
    • Nanomaterial’s synthesis: Top down and Bottom up approach, Physical and chemical methods Applications (Nano-machines, solar cells, coatings, MEMS, nano-medicine, sensors, miscellaneous)
    • Characterization Techniques and Instruments: Microscopy SEM, TEM, AFM, X-Ray diffraction, UV-vis, Photoluminescence, Raman, FTIR, ESR, XPS, BET, DLS, Zeta potential
    CHY352
    Advanced Biochemistry
    3
    1. General Introduction:

      1. Biomolecules: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, Enzymes and Vitamins

    1. Carbohydrates:

      1. Structure and Functions

      2. Carbohydrates metabolism,

      3. Kreb’s Cycle and Glycolysis.

    1. Proteins:

      1. Properties, Structure and Functions

      2. Protein Sequencing

        1. Edman degradation

        2. Sanger’s reagent and

        3. Dansyl chloride

        4. Sequence by Mass Spectrometry (MALDI, ESI-MS, Tandem MS).

    1. Nucleic Acids:

      1. Introduction of Nucleic acids

      2. Gene expression, Genetic Code

      3. DNA Sequencing

        1. Sanger dideoxy method

        2. Maxam Gilbert

        3. Bisulfite

      4. Functions of nucleic acids

        1. DNA replication

        2. Repair and recombination

      5. DNA chemistry

        1. DNA damage

        2. Methylation and demethylation

        3. Oxidative DNA damage

        4. DNA-DNA crosslinks

        5. DNA-Protein crosslinks

        6. Mutagenesis

        7. Diseases and carcinogenesis

    4.9. Gene Sequence,

    4.10. PCR, RT-PCR techniques,

    4.11. DNA Finger printing (Agarose gel electrophoresis)

    4.11.1. Forensics,

    4.11.2. Relationships,

    4.11.3. Medical Diagnostics

    1. Lipids:

      1. Fats: Properties and functions

        1. Fatty Acids,

        2. Classes of Lipids

        3. Nomenclature of fatty acids

        4. Examples of diff. Lipids

        5. Phospholipids,

        6. Steroids

        7. Beta Oxidation mechanism

    1. Enzymes:

      1. Co-factors, Co-enzymes, Apo-enzyme, Halo enzymes

      2. Factors effecting Enzymes (Con., pH, T)

      3. Nomenclature, Mechanism of Enzymes

      4. Biosynthesis of cofactors

        1. NAD+-NADPH

        2. Biosynthesis of Niacin (Vitamin B3)

        3. FAD-FADH-FADH2

        4. Thiamine pyrophosphate TPP

      5. Enzyme assay in Diagnostic Medicine

     

    1. Hormones and Vitamins

      1. Classifications of Hormones,

      2. Examples and Function of Hormones

      3. Classifications of Vitamins

      4. Examples and Function of Vitamins

    CHY354
    Biochemical Toxicology
    3

    COURSE CONTENT:

    1. General Principals of toxicology
    2. Classes of toxicants 3. Metabolism
    4. P450 and P450 catalyzed reactions
    5. Other phase 1 reactions
    6. Phase II/Conjugation reactions
    7. Bioactivation and Reactive intermediates 8. Reaction of Chemicals with DNA
    9. DNA adducts and its consequences (Mutagenesis, DNA repair and Translesion DNA synthesis)
    10. Protein adducts 11. Genetic toxicology (polymorphism)
    12. Molecular basis of toxicology
    13. Biomarkers
    14. Natural Products
    15. Cellular Oncogenesis
    16. Metals
    17. Drug induced liver damage
    18. Mass spectrometry and other analytical methods

    CHY421
    Organic Synthesis
    4

    a.    Nucleophilic Reactions 
    i.    Alkylation of nucleophilic carbon intermediates. 
    ii.    Reaction of carbon nucleophiles with carbonyl group. 
    iii.    Functional group interconversion by nucleophilic substitution. 

    b.    Electrophilic addition to carbons
    i.    Electrophilic aromatic substitution, 
    ii.    Electrophilic addition to carbon-carbon multiple bonds. 

    c.    Reduction
    i.    Reduction of carbonyls. 
    ii.    Reductive elimination and fragmentation. 
    iii.    Olefin reduction
    iv.    Reductive deoxygenation of carbonyl groups
     
    d.    Cycloaddition, unimolecular rearrangement and thermal eliminations
    i.    Name reactions and mechanism, 
    ii.    Applications and limitations of the major reactions in organic synthesis. 
    iii.    Application in natural product synthesis
    iv.    Literature review

    e.    Reaction involving transition metals
    i.    Name reactions and mechanism, 
    ii.    Applications and limitations of the major reactions in organic synthesis. 
    iii.    Application in natural product synthesis
    iv.    Literature review
        

    Note. Each topic will end with a discussion section, where student participation is important and will have direct implication in there grade